Introduction,Discovery Of Indus Valley Civilization,Extent Of Indus Valley Civilization,Sources Of Information,Date Of Indus Valley Civilization,Social Life Of Indus People,Social Life Of Indus People,Economic Life Of Indus People,Religious Ideas And Beliefs,Art,Political Organization,Town Planning And Art Of Building,Relation With Foreign Countries,Decay Of Indus Valley Civilization

introduction of Indus Valley Civilization-

The Indus civilization has great importance in Indian history because before the discovery of this civilization, very little information was available about the archaeological material before Maurya yesterday. Apart from this, Indian civilization was not of special importance compared to the very ancient comparison of Mesopotamia, Sumer and Crete, etc. But the discovery of Indus valley civilization added a golden chapter in Indian history and culture. It was developed and ancient and in some areas it was more specific than that. Marshall has also accepted this fact.


Discovery of Indus valley civilization-

From now till 72 years ago there was not even little knowledge about Indus civilization and this civilization was extinct in the ruins of timeless. By 1921, it was a general strike that the oldest civilization of India is the Vedic civilization of the Aryans, but the discovery of the Indus valley civilization proved this belief to be untrue. The chief of the Indus valley civilization has been found in the form of mound in a wide part in the Indus-river valley (nowadays in Pakistan). In 1921, Raibahadur sahani first discovered this important civilization at a place called Harrapa. A year later, in 1922, Rakhal Das Banerjee obtained the site of a grand city by digging at Mohenjo-Daro, 40 kilometres away from Harappa. Mohenjo-Daro is located 300 km north of Karachi in Larkana district of Sindh. Mohenjo-Daro literally means the mound of the dead. After this, the Archaeological Department of India started planning and excavation work in this place. Sir John Marsal, Ernest Maike, Kashinath Dixit, Majumdar, Sir Ralstein etc. in addition to the dayaramsahni Tejastha Rakhaldas Banerjee in the coverless karne, received hard labor and materials. The work of excavation in Prabhu was done in the valley of the Indus River itself, and it was at that place that all the remains of this civilization were received first, hence Marshal called this civilization as Indus civilization.

Extent Of Indus Valley Civilization-

The extent of Indus Valley civilization- It has been clear from archaeological excavations that the place of Indus-Civilization was not limited to Harrapa and Mohenjodaro but was very wide. The expansion of Indus-civilization was more elaborate than the civilization of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia. The remarkable thing in the development of Indus-civilization is that the inhabitants of Indus-civilization mainly chose the places where the climate was suitable for growing wheat. Residents of this civilization had a coastline of about 1,300 km, which also provided them sea trade facilities.

And from the discoveries, the residues of the Indus valley civilization are obtained from the following places, which also know their expansion.

1-Balochistan – Here, the remains of Indus-civilization have been obtained from Sutkegondor, Dabarkot.

2- Apart from Sindh-Mohenjodaro, relics of Indus-civilization have also been found in many places in Sindh like Kotdiji, Alimurid, Chanhudaro.

3-Punjab-Remains of Indus civilization were also found at Ropar, Sandhol places in the extra.

4-Haryana– It is known that Banbaliwali and Mitathal places are well known.

5-Rajasthan – The remains of the Indus civilization were found in a place called Kalibanga in Rajasthan. Kalibanga is situated on the banks of Saraswati where there are two mounds. Stone beads, clay witches, utensils have been found in the eastern mound. Baths, wells, fire mills and earthen vessels have been found in the western mound. This place was discovered in 1942 by Stein.

6-Uttar Pradesh- Remains of Sindhi civilization in Uttar Pradesh have been found near Alamgirpur, about 30 km from Meerut and near Kausambhi, 56 km from Allahabad in Ganga’s ghati.

7-Gujarat- The remains of the Indus civilization have been received from Rangpur, Lothal Rosdi, Sur Kotra and Malvad etc. in Gujarat, Lothal is the most important of all-

8- Lothal – It is 14 km south of Ahmedabad. It is known from the excavation here that it was possible that there was a famous port, Jha, a postyard was built to stop the ships. There was a very good arrangement of drains in Lothal. Witches and stones have also been obtained from Lothal. Earthen pots of red and black color have also been obtained from it. On which the figure is carved, there are avalanches of Lothal settling 4 times.



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